Human Adipose-Derived and Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells: A Preliminary In Vitro Study Comparing Myogenic Differentiation Capability
Anna Bajek, Joanna Olkowska, Małgorzata Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Paweł Sadłecki, Marek Grabiec, Dorota Porowińska, Tomasz Drewa, Krzysztof Roszkowski
Department of Tissue Engineering, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: LBR1733-1741
Available online: 2018-03-24
Around the world, disabilities due to musculoskeletal disorders have increased and are a major health problem worldwide. In recent years, stem cells have been considered to be powerful tools for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs) undergo typical differentiation process into cells of mesodermal origin and can be used to treat muscular system diseases. The aim of the present study was to compare the biological characteristic of stem cells isolated from different human tissues (adipose tissue and amniotic fluid) with respect to myogenic capacity and skeletal and smooth muscle differentiation under the same conditions.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: hAFSCs and hADSCs were isolated during standard medical procedures and widely characterized by specific markers expression and differentiation potential. Both cell types were induced toward smooth and striated muscles differentiation, which was assessed with the use of molecular techniques.
RESULTS: For phenotypic characterization, both stem cell types were assessed for the expression of OCT-4, SOX2, CD34, CD44, CD45, and CD90. Muscle-specific markers appeared in both stem cell types, but the proportion of positive cells showed differences depending on the experimental conditions used and the source from which the stem cells were isolated.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrated that hADSCs and hAFSCs have different capability of differentiation toward both muscle types. However, hADSCs seem to be a better source for myogenic protocols and can promote skeletal and smooth muscle regeneration through either direct muscle differentiation or by paracrine mechanism.
Keywords: Adipose Tissue, Amniotic Fluid, Cell Dedifferentiation, Muscle Cells, Stem Cells