P53 and Protein Phosphorylation Regulate the Oncogenic Role of Epithelial Cell Transforming 2 (ECT2)
Yan Chen, Ping Tian, Yi Liu
Department of Gastroenterology, Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang, Weifang, Shandong, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:3154-3160
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, but little progress has been achieved in the treatment of advanced or metastatic GC. GC is highly heterogeneous and more studies are needed to elucidate the metastatic mechanisms. Epithelial cell transforming 2 (ECT2) has been reported to be up-regulated in GC tissues, but its signaling mechanisms remain unclear.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we used Western blot analysis to compare the expression level of ECT2 in 2 GC cell lines: MKN1 and MKN45. Mutagenesis and transfections were conducted to investigate the oncogenic mechanisms of ECT2 in GC cells.
RESULTS: ECT2 was expressed at higher levels in MKN1 than in MKN45. Immunoblotting results showed that MKN1 expression was suppressed by p53-WT but was enhanced by p53-mutant. In addition, in vitro experiments showed that ECT2 positively regulated the proliferation and invasion of GC cells. To better explore the mechanisms of ECT2 in promoting GC progression, we introduced site-directed mutants of ECT2, and found that the phosphor-mimic mutant T359D enhanced its oncogenic activity. In contrast, activation of RhoA was inhibited in cells transfected with ECT2 phosphor-deficient mutant T359A. We found that the epithelial cell biomarker E-cadherin was down-regulated by ECT2-T359D, highlighting the role of phosphorylation in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results identified p53 as a novel up-stream signaling molecule of ECT2 in GC cells, and the post-translational modifications of ECT2 play important roles in regulating cancer development and progression.
Keywords: Neoplasm Invasiveness, Phosphorylation, Stomach Neoplasms, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53