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eISSN: 1643-3750

Assessment of Foot Shape in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

Andżelina Wolan-Nieroda, Agnieszka Guzik, Katarzyna Bazarnik-Mucha, Maciej Rachwał, Justyna Drzał-Grabiec, Ewa Szeliga, Katarzyna Walicka-Cupryś

Medical Department, Institute of Physiotherapy, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24:2149-2157

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.905184

Available online:

Published: 2018-04-11


BACKGROUND: Available publications provide little evidence pertaining to assessment of foot shape in children with intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to assess the parameters of foot shape in children and adolescents with intellectual disability and to evaluate the relationship between the degree of disability and these parameters.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 90 individuals aged 7–15 years, including 45 subjects with mild and moderate levels of intellectual disability (study group) and 45 peers with normal intellectual development (control group). Each participant was subjected to photogrammetric assessment of foot shape based on the projection moire effect.
RESULTS: Analysis of the relationship between the disability level and the assessed parameters showed that the length of the right (p=0.006) and left (p=0.004) foot, as well as Wejsflog’s rate for the right (p<0.001) and left (p<0.001) foot, were significantly higher among children with mild disability, whereas GAMMA angle of the right (p=0.028) and left (p=0.006) foot was significantly higher among children with moderate disability.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings show a significant relationship between the degree of disability and the assessed foot parameters. Significant differences between the subjects with intellectual disability and the control group were identified in the basic parameters defining foot structure.

Keywords: Foot Bones, Foot Deformities, Acquired, intellectual disability



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