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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 1643-3750

Proprioceptive Changes in Bilateral Knee Joints Following Unilateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Cynomolgus Monkeys

Lei Zhang, Ji Qi, Yan Zeng, Shaoqun Zhang, Shijie Fu, Xin Zhou, Ruiyue Ping, Yikai Li

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China (mainland)

Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: ANS105-113

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.905160

Available online: 2018-01-06

Published: 2018-01-06


BACKGROUND: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most important structures maintaining stability of knee joints, and the proprioception of the ACL plays a key role in it. If the ACL is injured in the unilateral knee joint, it changes nerve electrophysiology, morphology, and quantity of the proprioceptors in the bilateral ACL. The aim of this study was to explore the proprioceptive changes in the bilateral knee joints following unilateral ACL injury, and to provide a theoretical foundation and ideas for clinical treatment.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nine normal cynomolgus monkeys were chosen and used to developed a model of unilateral ACL injury, and 3 monkeys without modeling were used as blank control. At the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks, the changes in ACL nerves were inspected using electrophysiology [somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV)], and the changes of morphology and quantity of the proprioceptors in ACL were observed and measured under gold chloride staining.
RESULTS: On the injured and contralateral knee joints, the incubations were extended and the amplitudes were decreased over time. In addition, with the extension of time, the total number of proprioceptors in the ACL decreased, and the variable number of proprioceptors in the ACL increased.
CONCLUSIONS: ACL injury leads to attenuation of proprioception on the injured side, and also leads to the attenuation of proprioception on the contralateral side, and there is a tendency could get worse over time.

Keywords: Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Electrophysiology, Macaca fascicularis, Proprioception