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23 June 2017 : Animal Research  

Mechanism Underlying Acupuncture-Ameliorated Depressive Behaviors by Enhancing Glial Glutamate Transporter in Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUMS) Rats

Ding Luo12BCF, Rui Ma2CD, Yanan Wu3BC, Xuechun Zhang1BF, Yue Liu1BF, Lin Wang2F, Wenbin Fu12AG*

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.902549

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:3080-3087

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent mental illness worldwide. The glutamatergic neurotransmission system is now a target for antidepressant therapy because it takes part in synaptic plasticity and cognition in physical condition and has a potential excitatory neurotoxicity in pathological conditions. Glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 performs 90% of Glu neurotransmission. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of acupuncture on depressive behaviors and EAAT2 in CUMS.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly divided 56 male SD rats into a normal group, a model group, an acupuncture group, and a riluzole group. Rats in the model group, acupuncture group, and riluzole group underwent chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) exposure for 21 days. The acupuncture group received electro-acupuncture stimulation on LI4 and LR3 for 5 continuous days per week for 4 weeks, and rats in the riluzole group received 4 mg/kg of riluzole orally (Sanofi, J20140092) for 4 weeks after undergoing CUMS stimulation.

RESULTS: Rats showed significantly increased sucrose consumption in the sucrose preference test paradigm, and showed elevated food intake and shortened latency in the novelty-suppressed feeding test paradigm after undergoing acupuncture therapy and riluzole treatment. The amelioration of depressive behavioral actions was consistent with increasing number of positive cells, protein, and mRNA expression of glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 in the hippocampus and PFC.

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that acupuncture and riluzole are both effective in improving sucrose consumption, latency, and food intake in CUMS rats. However, acupuncture appears to achieve an antidepressant effect later than riluzole does because it might need accumulated stimulation by enhancing EAAT2 expression. Enhance glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 in the hippocampus and PFC is a mechanism underlying the antidepressant effect of acupuncture.

Keywords: Acupuncture, Depressive Disorder, Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750