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Serotyping and Genetic Characterization of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)-Associated Enteroviruses of No-EV71 and Non-CVA16 Circulating in Fujian, China, 2011–2015

Yuwei Weng, Wei Chen, Wenxiang He, Meng Huang, Ying Zhu, Yansheng Yan

(Public Health School of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:2508-2518

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.901364

Published: 2017-05-25

BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common contagious disease in infants; it is caused by multiple serotypes of human enterovirus (EV), which belongs to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. According to sentinel surveillance, infection with EVs other than EV71 and CVA 16 have become increasingly common in recent years among HFMD patients, posing new challenges for HFMD control. This study aimed to explore the spectrum of serotypes in the other EVs (non-EV71 and non-CVA16) in Fujian province in southeastern China.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 562 samples from EVs-infected HFMD patients with diagnosis confirmed by real-time RT-PCR with other EVs infection between 2011 and 2015. Nucleotide acid detection and the serotyping of the enteroviruses were also performed. The complete VP1 gene was amplified and sequenced. VP1-based phylogenetic analyses of CVA6, CVA10, CVA4, and CVA2 were also performed.
RESULTS: Among the samples, 22 serotypes of the other EVs, which belong to 4 species of human enterovirus A-D, were identified. Of the 22 serotypes, CVA6 (57.8%) and CVA10 (21.0%) were most common, followed by CVA4 (6.8%) and CVA2 (2.7%). The other 18 serotypes accounted for 11.7% of samples, none of which exceeded 2%. Among 47 (8.4%) samples from patients with severe HFMD, 10 serotypes were identified and most samples belonged to CVA6 (20/47), followed by CVA10 (11/47). Entire VP1 comparison revealed that overall genetic identities were 96.7%, 96.3%, 94.4%, and 94.9% among strains within CVA6, CVA10, CVA4, and CVA2, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: VP1-based phylogenetic analysis for the 4 predominant serotypes indicated various clades or sub-clades, which suggests the complex transmissions of other enteroviruses in Fujian.

Keywords: Enterovirus, Hand-foot syndrome, phylogeography, Serotyping