Effect of Posterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture on Biomechanical and Histological Features of Lateral Femoral Condyle
Zhenhan Deng, Yusheng Li, Hong Liu, Kanghua Li, Guanghua Lei, Bangbao Lu
Department of Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:4369-4379
The aim of this study was to investigate bone mineral density (BMD) and the biomechanical and histological effects of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) rupture on the lateral femoral condyle.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Strain on different parts of the lateral femoral condyle from specimens of normal adult knee joints, including 12 intact PCLs, 6 ruptures of the anterolateral bundle, 6 ruptures of the postmedial bundle, and 12 complete ruptures, was tested when loaded with different loads on the knee at various flexion angles. Lateral femoral condyles were also collected randomly from both the experimental side in which the PCLs were transected and the control side from 4 sets of 12 matched-mode pairs of rabbits at 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after surgery, and their BMD and morphological and histological changes were observed.
RESULTS: Partial and complete rupture of the PCL may cause an abnormal load on all parts of the lateral femoral condyle with any axial loading at all positions. Noticeable time-dependent degenerative histological changes of the lateral femoral condyle were observed in the rabbit model of PCL rupture. All of the PCL rupture groups had a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and collagen type II than the control group at all time points (P<0.05), but no significant difference in BMD (P>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Rupture of the PCL may trigger a coordinated response of lateral femoral condyle degeneration in a time-dependent manner, to which the high level of expression of MMP-7 and collagen type II could contribute.
Keywords: Bone Density, Collagen Type II, Matrix Metalloproteinase 7, Posterior Cruciate Ligament