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eISSN: 1643-3750

Gender-Based Long-Term Surgical Outcome in Patients with Active Infective Aortic Valve Endocarditis

Pascal M. Dohmen, Christian Binner, Meinhart Mende, Piroze Daviewala, Christian D. Etz, Michael Andrew Borger, Martin Misfeld, Sandra Eifert, Friedrich Wilhelm Mohr

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Leipzig Heart Center, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:2520-2527

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.899360

Available online:

Published: 2016-07-18


BACKGROUND: The aim of this observational, single-center study was to evaluate the impact of gender on surgical outcome in patients with active infective endocarditis (AIE) of the aortic valve.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between October 1994 and January 2011, 755 patients (558 men and 297 women) underwent surgery for AIE at the Leipzig Heart Center, Germany, according to the modified Duke criteria. Data were collected before surgery and as the study was ongoing. Gender influence on survival was evaluated (Kaplan-Meier curves). Cox proportional models were used to evaluate gender differences in relation to early mortality (within 30 days) and late mortality (up to 10 years).
RESULTS: The early mortality rate was 15.0% among men and 23.0% among women, which was statistically significant different (p=0.01). In male patients, variables associated with overall mortality were age (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.43–1.86; p<0.001), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.48–2.75; p<0.001), preoperative low ejection fraction (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98–0.99; p=0.002), previous cardiac surgery (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.22–2.13; p=0.001), preoperative ventilation (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.14–2.75; p=0.012), preoperative dialysis (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.20–2.98; p=0.006), NYHA Class IV (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.12–2.15; p=0.008), and involvement of multiple valves (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.24–2.19; p=0.001) had a statistically significant influence on the late mortality. Focus identification (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.08–2.77; p=0.023), involvement of multiple valves (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02–2.26; p=0.040), preoperative dialysis (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.96–6.77; p<0.001), and age (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28–1.82; p<0.004) were predictive risk factors for late mortality in women with AIE (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.5–8.4; p<0.004).
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated distinct gender-based differences in risk of mortality in patients with AIE (who were undergoing surgical treatment) with different early and long-term outcomes.

Keywords: Aortic Valve Insufficiency, Endocarditis, Bacterial, Gender Identity



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