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Radiographic Study of the Prevalence and Distribution of Hypodontia Associated with Unilateral and Bilateral Clef Lip and Palate in a Hungarian Population

Ádám Berniczei-Roykó, Jan-Hendrik Tappe, Axel Krinner, Tomasz Gredes, András Végh, Katona Gábor, Kamila Linkowska-Świdzińska, Ute Ulrike Botzenhart

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany

Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:3868-3885

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.897957

Available online:

Published: 2016-10-21

BACKGROUND: Cleft defects are one of the most frequent birth-deformities of the orofacial region and they are commonly associated with anomalies of the tooth structure, size, shape, formation, eruption, and tooth number. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence, distribution, and potential association of combined hypodontia in cleft-affected patients with regard to all types of teeth in both jaws in the permanent dentition.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective radiographic analysis included patients with various types of clefts treated orthodontically in the Department of Orofacial Orthopedics and Orthodontics at Heim Pàl Children’s Hospital, Budapest. There were 150 patients (84 males, 66 females) with non-syndromic unilateral (UCLP; n=120 patients) or bilateral (BCLP; n=30 patients) cleft formation (lip, alveolus and palate) who met the inclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test (significance level p<0.05).
RESULTS: Hypodontia was significantly more frequent in patients with cleft-sided lateral incisor (104 patients, 69%), with a total of 235 missing teeth, followed by the second premolars of the upper and lower jaw. A significant correlation of congenital missing teeth was observed in left-sided clefts between the upper and lower second premolar in the cleft area
CONCLUSIONS: Hypodontia inside and outside the cleft area was frequently observed. This should affect the therapy plans, especially if the cleft-sided premolar is also absent. Further comprehensive research including numerous random samples is necessary for better estimating other possible associations.

Keywords: Anodontia - etiology, Adolescent, Bicuspid - diagnostic imaging, Child, Child, Preschool, Cleft Lip - diagnostic imaging, Cleft Palate - diagnostic imaging, Hungary, Incisor - diagnostic imaging, Prevalence, Tooth Socket - diagnostic imaging