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15 September 2016 : Animal Research  

Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes

Yi LiuBCE, Ledan WangCF, Fang WangDF, Changzhong LiAG

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.897808

Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:3274-3280

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation.

RESULTS: Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p<0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P<0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group.

CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important.

Keywords: Cytokines - metabolism, Inflammation - pathology, Interleukin-6 - metabolism, Leukocytes, Mononuclear - metabolism, Lung - pathology, Models, Animal, Oxidative Stress - drug effects, Particle Size, Particulate Matter - toxicity, Placenta - pathology, Pregnancy

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750