Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoblasts and Adipocytes and its Role in Treatment of Osteoporosis
Cheng Wang, Haoye Meng, Xin Wang, Chenyang Zhao, Jiang Peng, Yu Wang
Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China (mainland)
Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:226-233
Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic bone disorder characterized by a decrease in bone mass and degradation of the bone microstructure, leaving bones that are fragile and prone to fracture. Most osteoporosis treatments improve symptoms, but to date there is no quick and effective therapy. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) have pluripotent potential. In adults, BMMSCs differentiate mainly into osteoblasts and adipocytes in the skeleton. However, if this differentiation is unbalanced, it may lead to a decrease in bone mass. If the number of adipocyte cells increases and that of osteoblast cells decreases, osteoporosis can result. A variety of hormones and cytokines play an important role in the regulation of BMMSCs bidirectional differentiation. Therefore, a greater understanding of the regulation mechanism of BMMSC differentiation may provide new methods to prevent and treat osteoporosis. In addition, autologous, allogeneic BMMSCs or genetically modified BMMSC transplantation can effectively increase bone mass and density, increase bone mechanical strength, correct the imbalance in bone metabolism, and increase bone formation, and is expected to provide a new strategy and method for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Keywords: Bone Marrow Cells - cytology, Animals, Adipocytes - cytology, Cell Differentiation, Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells - cytology, Osteoblasts - cytology, Osteoporosis - therapy