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eISSN: 1643-3750

Predictors of Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients

Hale Gokcan, Nurten Savaş, Derya Oztuna, Gokhan Moray, Fatih Boyvat, Mehmet Haberal

Department of Gastroenterology, Ankara Yüksek Ihtisas Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

Ann Transplant 2015; 20:596-603

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.894878

Available online:

Published: 2015-10-06

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common tumor worldwide, with an incidence equal to the death rate.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We aimed to detect the prognostic factors for HCC patients. We retrospectively analyzed 12 years data of 115 patients who have biopsy-proven HCC. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with treatment modalities, survival rates, and prognostic factors were analyzed.
RESULTS: There were 93 male patients, and the mean age was 63.5±11.8 years. Most patients had cirrhosis due to hepatitis virus infection. Median follow-up time was 17 months (1 month–9.5 years) after the diagnosis of HCC. The nodule was single in 43 (37.4%) patients, there were 2–3 nodules in 30 (26.1%), and >3 or diffuse nodules in 42 (36.5%) patients. Distribution of treatment modalities was as follows: 23 (20%) patients had liver transplantation, 15 (13%) had HCC resection, 12 patients (10.4%) had radiofrequency ablation (RFA), 26 patients (22.6%) had transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), 2 (1.7%) had alcohol ablation, and 37 patients (32.2%) had no treatment. Tumor sizes of 9 patients (39.1%) in the transplanted group exceeded the Milan criteria. Mean survival was 72±6.9, 78.8 ±12.5, 19.5±2.8, 20.6±4.2, 16.0±5.9 months in those that received transplantation, resection, RFA, TACE, and no treatment, respectively (p<0.001). Survival was significantly poorer in patients >63 years old (p=0.001), with serum albumin level ≤3.4 g/dL (p=0.01), and with diffuse HCC (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Survival was significantly better in patients who underwent liver transplantation or surgical resection. Tumor number, age, and serum albumin level were the most important prognostic factors related to overall survival.

Keywords: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular, Combined Modality Therapy, Survival Analysis