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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 1643-3750

Clinical Significance of Arterial Stiffness and Thickness Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Up-To-Date Meta-Analysis

Yang Yapei, Ren Xiaoyan, Zeng Sha, Pan Li, Meng Xiao, Chen Shuangfeng, Wang Lexin, Cui Lianqun

Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China (mainland)

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:2467-2475

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.894693

Available online:

Published: 2015-08-21


BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies explored the association of T2DM with arterial stiffness and thickness biomarkers including the augmentation index (AIX), aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV), carotid intima-media wall thickness (IMT) as well as blood pressure (BP), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); however the conclusions are either inconsistent or incomprehensive.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The average differences of each included trial were expressed as the standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Analyses of carotid IMT, aPWV, baPWV and AIX Systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), LDL-C and HDL-C were independently performed. Furthermore, subgroup analyses by ethnicity (Caucasian or Asian) were conducted. Begg’s and Egger’s tests were performed for potential publication biases detection.
RESULTS: A total of 14 case-control eligible studies with 1222 T2DM patients and 1094 control subjects were included. In the overall analysis, significant associations were observed between the carotid IMT, aPWV, baPWV, LDL-C, HDL-C, SBP, and DBP with T2DM (IMT: p=1.1*10–12; aPWV: p=1.1*10–7; baPWV: p=1.8*10–33; LDL-C: p=3.1*10–8; HDL-C: p=6.1*10–18; SBP: p=3.9*10–21; DBP: p=4.8*10–5). No association was detected for AIX (p=0.09). Subgroup analyses indicated that aPWV, baPWV, SBP, LDL-C, and HDL-C were associated with T2DM in both white and Asian populations (p<0.05). The significant associations of IMT, AIX and DBP with T2DM were only observed in the Asian subgroup.
CONCLUSIONS: Carotid IMT, aPWV, baPWV, as well as LDL-C, HDL-C, SBP, and DBP but not AIX were useful noninvasive early markers for T2DM vascular dysfunction detection.

Keywords: Biomarkers - blood, Ankle Brachial Index, Blood Pressure, carotid intima-media thickness, Case-Control Studies, Cholesterol, HDL - blood, Cholesterol, LDL - blood, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - physiopathology, Diabetic Angiopathies - physiopathology, Pulse Wave Analysis, Risk Factors, Vascular Stiffness