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Medical Science Monitor Basic Research


eISSN: 1643-3750

Kinesiophobia in Pre-Operative Patients with Cervical Discopathy and Coexisting Degenerative Changes in Relation to Pain-Related Variables, Psychological State and Sports Activity

Ewa Misterska, Roman Jankowski, Jakub Głowacki, Milud Shadi, Michał Walczak, Maciej Głowacki

Department of Social Sciences, Higher School of Safety in Poznań, Poznań, Poland

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:181-194

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.891045

Available online:

Published: 2015-01-14


Background: No research group has ever investigated the level of kinesiophobia in a well defined group of preoperative patients treated due to cervical discopathy and degenerative spine disease, confirmed by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. We aimed to investigate the degree of kinesiophobia and the differences in pain-related and psychosocial characteristics between patients with high and low levels of kinesiophobia, in relation to factors commonly associated with neck pain.
Material and Methods: Sixty-five consecutive patients with cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes were assessed pre-surgically. The mean pain duration was 31.7 SD 34.0 months. Patients completed the Polish versions of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-PL) on 2 occasions, and the following once: Neck Disability Index (NDI-PL), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS-PL).
Results: A high level of kinesiophobia was indicated in 81.5% and 87.7% of patients in first and second completion, respectively. Patients with high and low kinesiophobia differ in regards to the recreation section of NDI-PL (p=0.012), gender (p=0.043), and sports activity (p=0.024). Correlations were identified between TSK-PL and marital status (p=0.023) and sports activity (p=0.024).
Conclusions: Kinesiophobia levels are higher in patients with chronic cervical pain before surgical treatment. Fear of movement tends to be higher in women and among patients avoiding sports recreation before surgical treatment. Although sports activity and socio-demographic data are predictors of kinesiophobia, psychological, pain-related, and clinical data are not. These findings should be considered when planning rehabilitation after surgical treatment of cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes.

Keywords: Adult, Adaptation, Psychological, Anxiety - diagnosis, Chronic Pain - diagnosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Multivariate Analysis, Neck Pain - diagnosis, Pain, Pain Measurement, preoperative period, Psychometrics, Questionnaires, Social Class, Sports, X-Rays