Comparison of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced chronic hydrocephalus: A pilot study
Jeong-Hyun Lee, Dong-Hyuk Park, Dong-Bin Back, Jea-Young Lee, Chang-In Lee, Kyung-Jae Park, Shin-Hyuk Kang, Tai-Hyoung Cho, Yong-Gu Chung
Med Sci Monit 2012; 18(12): PR19-25
Available online: 2012-12-01
Background: We examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) to investigate the pathophysiology and mechanism of communicating hydrocephalus compared to obstructive hydrocephalus.
Material/Methods: We obtained CSF samples from 8 INPH, 10 SAH-induced hydrocephalus, and 6 unmatched patients with non-hemorrhagic obstructive hydrocephalus during their ventriculoperitoneal shunt operations. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and total tau in the CSF were analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: The mean VEGF levels in the CSF of patients with SAH-induced hydrocephalus, INPH, and obstructive hydrocephalus were 239±131, 239±75, and 163±122 pg/mL, respectively. The total tau concentrations in the CSF of the groups were 1139±1900, 325±325, and 1550±2886 pg/mL, respectively. TNF-α values were 114±34, 134±38, and 55±16 pg/mL, respectively. TGF-β1 values were 953±430, 869±447, and 136±63 pg/mL, respectively. A significant difference in TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels was observed only between SAH-induced and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus, and between INPH and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus (p<0.01).
Conclusions: No significant differences in the 4 CSF biomarker levels were observed between INPH and SAH-induced hydrocephalus, whereas CSF TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels were increased compared to those in patients with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Post-SAH hydrocephalus and INPH are probably more destructive to neural tissues, and then stimulate the inflammatory reaction and healing process, compared with obstructive hydrocephalus.
Keywords: Pilot Projects, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage - complications, Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure - etiology, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Chronic Disease, Case-Control Studies, Aged, 80 and over, Biological Markers - cerebrospinal fluid, Transforming Growth Factor beta1 - cerebrospinal fluid, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha - cerebrospinal fluid, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A - cerebrospinal fluid, tau Proteins - cerebrospinal fluid