Effects of cigarette smoking, metabolic syndrome and dehydroepiandrosterone deficiency on intima-media thickness and endothelial function in hypertensive postmenopausal women
Jolanta Mieczkowska, Jerzy Mosiewicz, Jarosław Sak, Andrzej Grzybowski, Piotr Terlecki, Wojciech Barud, Wojciech Kwaśniewski, Piotr Tutka
Med Sci Monit 2012; 18(4): CR225-234
Background: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between smoking and arterial hypertension as well as endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women without clinically manifested symptoms of atherosclerosis.
Material/Methods: The study groups consisted of 35 current smokers and 45 nonsmokers. The thickness of intima-media complex (IMT), a marker of atherosclerosis, was measured in carotid arteries. Plasma concentrations of fasting glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1), matrix metalloproteinases (metalloproteinase-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1), insulin, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured.
Results: Smokers compared with nonsmokers showed lower fasting glucose levels in blood (87.0±10.9 and 93.2±13.6 mg/dl, p<0.05), higher mean systolic (131.1±15.9 vs. 123.0±10.9 mm Hg, p<0.05) and diastolic (81.7±11.4 vs. 75.2±9.2 mm Hg, p<0.05) blood pressure during daytime, and higher average heart rate during the daytime (78.2±9.3/min vs. 71.5±9.5/min, p<0.01) and at night (67.2±10.6/min vs. 61.7±7.7/min, p<0.05), respectively. The IMT in the right carotid artery was significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (0.96±0.16 mm vs. 0.82±0.21, p<0.05) and was positively correlated with smoking intensity (R=0.36) and habit duration (R=0.35). The comparison of inflammatory markers, metalloproteinases, and DHEA-S concentrations in plasma did not reveal significant differences between the 2 groups. A significant negative correlation between DHEA-S concentration in plasma and IMT in right carotid artery was found in smokers.
Conclusions: Smoking in hypertensive postmenopausal women is associated with lower fasting blood glucose and BMI values, but higher arterial pressure and heart rate, and increases in IMT in right carotid artery.
Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome X - physiopathology, Matrix Metalloproteinases - blood, Inflammation Mediators - blood, Hypertension - physiopathology, Humans, Heart Rate - physiology, Female, Endothelium, Vascular - physiopathology, Diastole - physiology, Dehydroepiandrosterone - deficiency, carotid intima-media thickness, Blood Pressure - physiology, Biological Markers - blood, Anthropometry, Middle Aged, Postmenopause - physiology, Smoking - adverse effects, Systole - physiology