Evaluation of differentiated neurotherapy programs for a patient after severe TBI and long term coma using event-related potentials
Maria Pachalska, Malgorzata Lukowicz, Juri D. Kropotov, Izabela Herman-Sucharska, Jan Talar
Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(10): CS120-128
Available online: 2011-10-01
Background: This article examines the effectiveness of differentiated rehabilitation programs for a patient with frontal syndrome after severe TBI and long-term coma. We hypothesized that there would be a small response to relative beta training, and a good response to rTMS, applied to regulate the dynamics of brain function.
Case Report: M. L-S, age 26, suffered from anosognosia, executive dysfunction, and behavioral changes, after a skiing accident and prolonged coma, rendering him unable to function independently in many situations of everyday life. Only slight progress was made after traditional rehabilitation. The patient took part in 20 sessions of relative beta training (program A) and later in 20 sessions of rTMS (program B); both programs were combined with behavioral training. We used standardized neuropsychological testing, as well as ERPs before the experiment, after the completion of program A, and again after the completion of program B. As hypothesized, patient M.L-S showed small improvements in executive dysfunction and behavioral disorders after the conclusion of program A, and major improvement after program B. Similarly, in physiological changes the patient showed small improvement after relative beta training and a significant improvement of the P300 NOGO component after the rTMS program.
Conclusions: The rTMS program produced larger physiological and behavioral changes than did relative beta training. A combination of different neurotherapeutical approaches (such as neurofeedback, rTMS, tDCS) can be suggested for similar severe cases of TBI. ERPs can be used to assess functional brain changes induced by neurotherapeutical programs.
Keywords: Mild Cognitive Impairment - therapy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Evoked Potentials - physiology, Coma - rehabilitation, Brain Injuries - rehabilitation, Beta Rhythm - physiology, Adult, Neurofeedback - methods, Neuropsychological Tests, Questionnaires, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation