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30 March 2009

Prevalence of antiphospholipid and antinuclear antibodies in children with epilepsy

Tamás ConstantinABCDEF, Tamás KálovicsB, Andrea PonyiACDE, Eszter NagyB, Krisztina SallaiB, Léna SzabóBF, Miklós GaramiAD, Judit MullerB, Péter GergelyAD, Katalin DankóAD, Gyorgy FeketeADE, Rozália Kálmánchey

Med Sci Monit 2009; 15(4): CR164-169 :: ID: 869616

Abstract

Background
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent venous thrombosis or arterial occlusive events and fetal losses associated with elevated levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs).
Material and Method
The presence of antinuclear, anti-beta2-glycoprotein I, and anticardiolipin antibodies were investigated in 60 consecutive children with epilepsy who were followed up in a single Hungarian center.
Results
Almost 50% (28/60) of the patients were ANA positive. Twelve (20%) patients had moderate titer (1:160) of ANA. Anti-C1q antibody was positive in 4 cases, all of them symptom free considering renal manifestation of lupus. Interestingly, only 1 child had aCL antibody, while 6/43 patients were LAC positive. Five were also ANA positive among the LAC positive patients (4 children with moderate titer). Anti-beta2GPI antibody positivity was not detected in this cohort of patients.
Conclusions
The clinical relevance of aPL tests in childhood are difficult to explain. In the present study, obviously lower total prevalence of aPLs (aCL and anti-beta2GPI) was observed in children with epilepsy than in previously reported investigations (20-30%). The higher amount of LAC-positive patients indicates that coagulation studies (LAC) should be included in the neuroimmunological assessment of suspected APS patients with epileptic disorders. The difference between the results of serological and LAC studies could be explained by the possible positivity of other, uninvestigated antibodies. The wide spectrum of detected immunological alterations highlight the importance of the participation of pediatric rheumatologists in the management of patients with idiopathic epilepsy or with secondary induced autoimmune disease due to antiepileptic medications.

Keywords: Epilepsy - immunology, Child, Child, Preschool, Antibodies, Antiphospholipid - blood, Antibodies, Antinuclear - blood, Adolescent

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