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Perindopril, atenolol, and amlodipine prevent aortic ultrastructural changes in rats exposed to ethanol

Mehmet Yokusoglu, Cemal Sag, Mehmet Cincik, Mehmet Uzun, Hakan Kayir, Cem Koz, Baris Baykal, Mustafa Ozkan, Candan Ozogul, Oben Baysan, Ismail Tayfun Uzbay

Med Sci Monit 2008; 14(5): BR96-102

ID: 855746

Available online: 2008-04-29

Published: 2008-04-29

Background:    The effects of perindopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, atenolol, a beta adrenergic receptor blocker, and amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, were investigated in chronic alcohol administered rats.
    Material/Methods:    Adult male Wistar rats (240–320 g) were used in the present study. Alcohol was given to rats on a modified liquid diet for 21 days. Perindopril (2.5 and 5 mg/kg), atenolol (5 and 10 mg/kg), and amlodipine (5 and 10 mg/kg) were injected into rats in different groups intraperitoneally for 21 days. Control rats were pair fed an isocaloric liquid diet containing sucrose as a caloric substitute for alcohol. Saline was injected into the control rats for 21 days. The hearts were removed after the rats were anesthetized by ether, and 1-mm3 samples from the ascending aortas were fixed. Five fields per aorta were examined and photographed with a transmission electron microscope. Blood alcohol levels were also measured spectrophotometrically.
    Results:    Daily alcohol consumption of the rats was in the range of 12.09–15.50 g/kg. Blood alcohol concentrations were 145.63 mg/dl on the 21st day of alcohol consumption. Chronic alcohol consumption caused some marked aortic wall injuries. Perindopril, atenolol, and amlodipine at high doses, but not low doses, produced some significant beneficial effects on alcohol-induced aortic wall damage.
    Conclusions:    These results imply that perindopril, atenolol, and amlodipine may have protective effects on heavy chronic alcohol consumption-induced aortic wall injury in rats only in high doses.

Keywords: Amlodipine, Perindopril, atenolol, alcohol consumption, aortic ultrastructure, Adrenergic beta-Antagonists - pharmacology, Amlodipine - pharmacology, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - pharmacology, Animals, Aorta - ultrastructure, Atenolol - pharmacology, Calcium Channel Blockers - pharmacology, Endothelial Cells - metabolism, Ethanol - pharmacology, Microscopy, Electron, Perindopril - pharmacology, Rats, Rats, Wistar