Wen Lin Wang, Kai Can Cai, Wei Sheng Zeng, Ren Chao Jiang
Med Sci Monit 2003; 9(3): CR109-113
Available online: 2003-03-17
BACKGROUND: In order to reach a clear understanding of minimally invasive approaches in cardiac operations, the authors review clinical experience in using three such approaches: inferior partial median sternotomy, right anterolateral minor thoracotomy, and the right parasternal approach. MATERIAL/METHODS: Sternotomy and the three different minimally invasive approaches were applied in and 2431 and 323 patients respectively. The approaches were selected according to the circumstances of the individual case. Both external and internal cardiac structures were observed during the operations. The length of the incision, the postoperative drainage, operative time, and cardiopulmonary bypass time were investigated. The postoperative complications occurring after minimally invasive approaches were observed. RESULTS: In inferior partial median sternotomy, all structures except for the ascending aorta could be exposed well. In right anterolateral minor thoracotomy, only the structures on the right side of the heart could be exposed, but the mitral valve could also be exposed well. The exposure of the right parasternal approach was similar to that of right anterolateral minor thoracotomy. There were statistically significant differences between sternotomy and the minimally invasive approaches in terms of incision length and postoperative drainage, but no difference in operative time and cardiopulmonary bypass time. The postoperative complications of MIAs included air embolism (n=3), chest pain (n=9), chest wall malacia (n=1), rib fracture (n=2), and sternum fracture (n=2). The total incidence of complications in minimally invasive approaches was 5.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The minimally invasive approaches can have satisfactory clinical results if the approaches are correctly chosen and performed.
Keywords: Embolism, Air - etiology, Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive - adverse effects