Asha Devi, Adiayara Bosse Jolitha, Naokata Ishii
Med Sci Monit 2006; 12(4): BR124-129
Available online: 2006-04-10
Background: Proanthocyanidin (PA) is a naturally occurring antioxidantfrom grape seed extract. The present study aims at assessing the neuroprotective effects of grape seedproanthocyanidin (GSPE) on the cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), and hippocampus (HC) in the adultrat brain. Material/Methods: GSPE was orally administered at 25, 50, and 75 mg per kg body weight dailyand for a total period of 9 weeks. Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase(CAT) were analyzed along with malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) as markers oflipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PO). The cholinergic system was studied by analyzingcholine acetyl tranferase (ChAT) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activites along with acetylcholinecontent (ACh). Results: The results obtained revealed an increased SOD activity in the 75-mg PA-supplementedanimals, with a substantial decrease in MDA and PCC. The cholinergic neurotransmittary system analysisshowed increased ChAT activity indicative of increased Ach content in the supplemented animals and theincrease was more in the 75-mg PA group with a concomitant and moderate decrease in AChE activity. Regionalchanges were more with reference to HC. Conclusions: Our study shows that PA intake in moderately lowquantity is effective in up-regulating the antioxidant defense mechanism by attenuating LPO and PO. Changesin the cholinergic system, however, indicate an increase in the ACh concentration with a moderate reductionin AChE activity, suggesting further that PA may have a potent role in enhancing cognition in older rats.
Keywords: Vitis - chemistry, Superoxide Dismutase - metabolism, Seeds - chemistry, Rats, Wistar, Rats, Protein Carbonylation - drug effects, Proanthocyanidins - pharmacology, Malondialdehyde - metabolism, Animals, Lipid Peroxidation - drug effects, Choline O-Acetyltransferase - metabolism, Catalase - metabolism, Brain - metabolism, Antioxidants - pharmacology, Acetylcholine - metabolism, Acetylcholinesterase - metabolism