Undurti N. Das
Med Sci Monit 2005; 11(5): RA155-162
Available online: 2005-05-05
Angiotensin-II, a product of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) action, regulates vascular tone, stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activates NFkappaB, increases oxidant stress, and suppresses nitric oxide synthesis. Thus, angiotensin-II is pro-inflammatory in nature. Hence, increase in ACE activity and the concentrations of angiotensin-II initiate and perpetuate inflammation. Since ACE is present in many tissues including: the uterus, placenta, vascular tissue, heart, brain, adrenal cortex and kidney, leukocytes, alveolar macrophages, peripheral monocytes, neuronal cells and epididymal cells, this suggests that angiotensin-II may have a role in atherosclerosis, congestive cardiac failure, stroke, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, atopic and non-atopic dermatitis, eczema, several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer, conditions in which inflammation is known to play a significant role. This suggests that ACE inhibitors and/or angiotensin-II receptor blockers could be of significant benefit in the management of these conditions. Alternatively, structural analogues of presently available ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers could be developed such that they are not only useful in the treatment of hypertension and CHF but also possess anti-inflammatory actions.
Keywords: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - pharmacology, Inflammation - physiopathology, Angiotensin II - physiology, angiotensin receptor antagonists, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - pharmacology, Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism, Free Radicals, Inflammation - physiopathology, Inflammation Mediators - physiology, Models, Biological, Neoplasms - physiopathology, Nitric Oxide - biosynthesis, Pregnancy