01 March 2004
Med Sci Monit 2004; 10(3): CR112-116 :: ID: 11597
Background:Human beings are exposed to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) from cigarette smoking. Whether this exposure is associated with nephrotoxicity is unknown.
Material/Methods: A total of 68 adult males were included in this study. The studied population was grouped into those who are smokers (n=35) and those who had never smoked (n=33). Cd, Pb and Hg were determined in the blood, urine, hair and nails to assess the extent of exposure to these metals. Urinary excretion of b[sub]2[/sub]-microglobulin (b[sub]2[/sub]M), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (NAG),γ -glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined as markers of tubular damage. Albuminuria was determined as a marker of glomerular damage. Serum levels of creatinine, b[sub]2[/sub]M, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined to assess glomerular filtration.Results: The Cd level in blood and Pb levels in blood and hair were significantly higher in the smokers than non-smokers. Blood levels of Cd and Pb correlated significantly with the smoking index (an indicator for the degree of smoking) in the smokers group. The studied markers of kidney damage neither elevated among the smokers nor correlated with the exposure indices of these metals.Conclusions: Smokers are exposed to Cd and Pb. This exposure is not high enough to produce nephrotoxicity. However, it may incite signs of nephrotoxicity in the presence of risk factors for kidney diseases.
Keywords: Acetylglucosaminidase - metabolism, Alkaline Phosphatase - metabolism, Cadmium - adverse effects, Cadmium - blood, Creatinine - blood, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Kidney - drug effects, Lead - adverse effects, Lead - blood, Mercury - adverse effects, Nitrogen - blood, Smoking, Urea - blood, beta 2-Microglobulin - urine, gamma-Glutamyltransferase - metabolism, Acetylglucosaminidase - metabolism, Alkaline Phosphatase - metabolism, Cadmium - blood, Creatinine - blood, Glomerular Filtration Rate, Kidney - drug effects, Lead - blood, Mercury - adverse effects, Nitrogen - blood, Smoking, Urea - blood, beta 2-Microglobulin - urine, gamma-Glutamyltransferase - metabolism
01 May 2022 : EditorialEditorial: Cardiovascular Complications at One Year After SARS-CoV-2 Infection are Independent of Underlying Cardiovascular Risk Factors or Severity of COVID-19
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e937048
04 May 2022 : Clinical ResearchEffects of Wearing Face Masks on Exercise Capacity and Ventilatory Anaerobic Threshold in Healthy Subjects ...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936069
27 May 2022 : Clinical ResearchFactors Associated with Falls During Hospitalization for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936547
27 May 2022 : Clinical ResearchPrognostic Significance of Preoperative Integrated Liver Inflammatory Score in Patients with Hepatocellular...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.937005
25 May 2022 : Review articleNarrative Review of the Mechanism of Hip Prosthesis Dislocation and Methods to Reduce the Risk of Dislocation
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935665
24 May 2022 : Clinical ResearchRemimazolam Tosilate Sedation with Adjuvant Sufentanil in Chinese Patients with Liver Cirrhosis Undergoing ...
Med Sci Monit In Press; DOI: 10.12659/MSM.936580
Most Viewed Current Articles
30 Dec 2021 : Clinical ResearchRetrospective Study of Outcomes and Hospitalization Rates of Patients in Italy with a Confirmed Diagnosis o...
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935379
08 Mar 2022 : Review articleA Review of the Potential Roles of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Pharmacological Approaches for the Man...
Med Sci Monit 2022; 28:e936292
01 Nov 2020 : Review articleLong-Term Respiratory and Neurological Sequelae of COVID-19
Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e928996