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01 December 2021: Editorial  

Editorial: SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Responses and Breakthrough COVID-19

Dinah V. Parums *

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.935624

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e935624



ABSTRACT: In 2021, data from global disease monitoring and infection surveillance programs have shown that vaccination programs have reduced the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization and mortality rates. Currently, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identifies a fully vaccinated individual as being ≥14 days after the completion of all the recommended doses of a COVID-19 vaccine that has been authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A partially vaccinated individual is <14 days following primary vaccination or has not completed the vaccination program. Clinical studies and data on the vaccine status of populations have identified breakthrough COVID-19 cases in fully vaccinated individuals at 14 or more days after completing the recommended dose of an authorized SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. This Editorial presents an update on what has been learned in the past year on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine responses and breakthrough COVID-19.

Keywords: Editorial, SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, COVID-19, Vaccines, COVID-19 breakthrough infections


There have been reports and clinical studies on the prevalence of breakthrough infections with SARS-CoV-2 following vaccination. It is clear that factors associated with inadequate vaccine responses in patients with breakthrough infections are still not fully understood and remain to be investigated. However, it does seem that the clinical course of breakthrough infections may differ between the variants of SARS-CoV-2. Given the global inequalities in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration, surveillance of immune responses in populations post-vaccination may inform equitable and targeted booster vaccination programs in the future.


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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750