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20 September 2021: Editorial

Editorial: Autoantibodies to Components of the Immune System, Including Type 1 Interferons, and the Risk of Severe COVID-19

Dinah V. Parums *

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.934766

Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e934766

Abstract

ABSTRACT: During the past two years, clinical studies have attempted to identify risk factors to predict clinical outcomes following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In July 2021, a study using a high-throughput technique detected autoantibodies to chemokines, cytokines, and complement components in patients with symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In August 2021, a study identified pre-existing autoantibodies to type 1 interferons (IFNs) in 10% of patients with severe COVID-19 but not asymptomatic individuals. Autoantibodies may be the long-awaited markers of clinical risk for severe COVID-19 in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This Editorial aims to present some recent findings of autoantibodies to components of the immune system, including type 1 IFNs, and the risk of severe COVID-19.

Keywords: Editorial, Autoantibodies, Interferons, Risk, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, COVID-19

Conclusions

Ongoing studies have identified a possible role for autoantibodies in the development of clinically severe COVID-19. It is possible that autoantibodies to components of the immune system, which are either pre-existing or develop after infection, impair immune control of SARS-CoV-2. The role of autoantibodies to components of the immune system in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 may involve inhibition of immunoreceptor signaling or directly affect immune cells. There is the possibility that newly identified autoantibodies may be the long-awaited markers for clinical risk of severe COVID-19 in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

References

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2. Costagliola G, Spada E, Consolini R: Age-related differences in the immune response could contribute to determine the spectrum of severity of COVID-19: Immun Inflamm Dis, 2021; 9(2); 331-39

3. Sandoval M, Nguyen DT, Vahidy FS, Graviss EA: Risk factors for severity of COVID-19 in hospital patients age 18–29 years: PLoS One, 2021; 16(7); e0255544

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8. Bastard P, Gervais A, Le Voyer T: Autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs are present in ~4% of uninfected individuals over 70 years old and account for ~20% of COVID-19 deaths: Sci Immunol, 2021; 6(62); eabl4340

9. Bastard P, Rosen LB, Zhang Q: Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19: Science, 2020; 370(6515); eabd4585

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Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750
Medical Science Monitor eISSN: 1643-3750