31 May 2021: EditorialDinah V. Parums *
Med Sci Monit 2021; 27:e933369
ABSTRACT: In early 2020, at the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rare cases were reported in children and adolescents of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). MIS-C is characterized by fever, systemic inflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction and usually presents late in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since May 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recorded all reported cases of COVID-19 and MIS-C in children and adolescents in the USA. In April 2021, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) revised its clinical guidelines for diagnosing and managing hyperinflammation and MIS-C. There are several challenges ahead for preventing, diagnosing, and managing MIS-C, particularly following the rapid emergence of new strains of SARS-CoV-2. This Editorial aims to present an update on the current status of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of MIS-C and includes some updates from population studies and clinical guidelines.
Keywords: Editorial, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Pediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Disease, COVID-19 Related
MIS-C is a rare acute association with SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. International clinical diagnostic and management guidelines have been developed for MIS-C and are continually updated. The diagnosis of MIS-C is challenging because children can present with non-specific symptoms. Severe MIS-C can present with clinical features similar to toxic shock syndrome, myocarditis, meningitis, sepsis, or systemic vasculitis. However, children who have been in contact with adults with COVID-19 and who present with fever, conjunctivitis, rash, and systemic symptoms should undergo rapid testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection and should be referred to a specialist pediatric infectious diseases unit.
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