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Published: 2015-08-04

High VEGF-D and Low MMP-2 Serum Levels Predict Nodal-Positive Disease in Invasive Bladder Cancer

Tobias Benoit, Etienne X. Keller, Pirmin Wolfsgruber, Thomas Hermanns, Michele Günthart, Irina Banzola, Tullio Sulser, Maurizio Provenzano, Cédric Poyet

(Department of Urology, University Hospital, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland)

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:2266-2274

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.894383


BACKGROUND: To investigate stromal variables including angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in the serum of patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) and to evaluate their association with histopathological characteristics and clinical outcome.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factors-A, -C, -D (VEGF-A/-C/-D), their receptors- VEGF-R2 and -R3 (VEGF-R2/-R3), and matrix metalloproteinases 2, -3, and -7 (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7) were quantified in the blood serum samples of 71 patients with UCB before radical cystectomy (RC). Samples of patients with non-invasive UCB or no history of UCB were investigated as controls (n=20). Protein levels in the serum were measured using a flow cytometric cytokine assay.
RESULTS: A positive association for VEGF-D (p<0.001) and an inverse association for MMP-2 (p=0.017) were observed in patients with positive lymph node (LN) status at the time of RC. VEGF-A (p<0.001), VEGF-C (p<0.001), MMP-2 (p<0.001), and MMP-7 (p=0.005) serum levels were different in serum of patients with invasive UCB compared with non-invasive UCB or healthy individuals. None of the serum markers were associated with disease progression.
CONCLUSIONS: High VEGF-D and low MMP-2 serum levels predict LN metastasis in patients with UCB at the time of RC. VEGF-A, VEGF-C, MMP-2, and MMP-7 serum levels varied significantly between invasive and non-invasive disease as well as in comparison with healthy individuals. Clinical implementation of these marker serum measurements may be valuable to select high-risk patients with more invasive or nodal-positive ... read more

Keywords: Biological Markers, Matrix Metalloproteinase 2, Urinary Bladder Neoplasms, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D




Published: 2015-08-04

Clinical Comparison of Non-Myeloablative Conditioning with Anti-Thymocyte Globulin and Fludarabine for Pa...


Qingshan Li, Fanyi Meng, Ming Zhou, Bizhen Yu, Wenjian Mo, Qinghua Du, Xuejie Jiang, Yaming Wei

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:2257-2265

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.893846

Published: 2015-08-03

Similar Outcomes of Standard Radiotherapy and Hypofractionated Radiotherapy Following Breast-Conserving S...


Hai-Ling Hou, Yong-Chun Song, Rui-Ying Li, Li Zhu, Lu-Jun Zhao, Zhi-Yong Yuan, Jin-Qiang You, Zhong-Jie Chen, Ping Wang

Med Sci Monit 2015; 21:2251-2256

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.893585