Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein (TXNIP) Suppresses Expression of Glutamine Synthetase by Inducing Oxidative Stress in Retinal Muller Glia Under Diabetic Conditions
Jia Zhou, Xi Shen, Qiong Lu, Min Zhang
(Department of Ophthalmology, Rui Jin Hospital, LuWan Branch, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China (mainland))
Med Sci Monit 2016; 22:1460-1466
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with early-stage symptoms such as dysfunction of Muller cells, which leads to ganglion cell death. Its pathogenesis is probably associated with oxidative stress and a recently discovered protein, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: To explore the role of TXNIP in DR, we cultured Muller cells under diabetic conditions, and then used immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and RT-PCR to detect the expression level of TXNIP under diabetic conditions. We demonstrated the expression level of glutamine synthetase (GS) when TXNIP was inhibited. To explore the potential pathway of TXNIP-induced cell damage in DR, we confirmed the role of IL-1β under diabetic conditions.
RESULTS: Diabetes induces TXNIP expressions at mRNA levels, but shows the opposite effect on GS. IL-1β plays an important role in this pathway. Azaserine effectively increased the expression of GS via attenuating the expression of TXNIP.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the role of TXNIP and its mechanism in DR, provides a possible treatment for DR, and lays a new theoretical foundation for the clinical treatment of DR and other diabetic microvascular changes.
Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy, Interleukin-1beta, Oxidative Stress, thioredoxins