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eISSN: 1643-3750

Increased β-Cell Mass in Obese Rats after Gastric Bypass: A Potential Mechanism for Improving Glycemic Control

Shuping Zhang, Wei Guo, Jinshan Wu, Lilin Gong, Qifu Li, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Jun Zhang, Zhihong Wang

(Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China (mainland))

Med Sci Monit 2017; 23:2151-2158

DOI: 10.12659/MSM.902230

Published: 2017-05-06

BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), has become widely considered the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. In most cases, it results in enhanced glucose management in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), which is observed before significant weight loss. However, what accounts for this effect remains controversial. To gain insight into the benefits of RYGB in T2D, we investigated changes in the β-cell mass of obese rats following RYGB.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: RYGB or a sham operation was performed on obese rats that had been fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Then, the HFD was continued for 8 weeks in both groups. Additional normal chow diet (NCD) and obese groups were used as controls.
RESULTS: In the present study, RYGB induced improved glycemic control and enhanced β-cell function, which was reflected in a better glucose tolerance and a rapidly increased secretion of insulin and C-peptide after glucose administration. Consistently, rats in the RYGB group displayed increased β-cell mass and islet numbers, which were attributed in part to increased glucagon-like peptide 1 levels following RYGB.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that RYGB can improve b-cell function via increasing β-cell mass, which plays a key role in improved glycemic control after RYGB.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Gastric Bypass, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Obesity, Morbid