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eISSN: 1643-3750

Genetic disorders and periodontal health: a literature review

Giuseppe Pizzo, Daniela Lo Re, Maria Ruth Piscopo, Ignazio Pizzo, Giovanna Giuliana

Med Sci Monit 2009; 15(8): RA167-178

ID: 878128

Published: 2009-08-01

Periodontal diseases include a group of inflammatory diseases characterized by progressive destruction of the periodontium. Dental plaque is the initiator of periodontal disease, but disease severity and response to treatment are determined predominantly by host-based risk factors. Genetic disorders can modify the host defense mechanisms or influence the homeostasis of the periodontium during childhood, thus increasing patients' susceptibility to periodontal disease. The periodontal manifestations of these disorders may persist into adulthood. When dealing with periodontal problems, particularly in children and adolescents, it is advisable to establish a differential diagnosis of periodontal disease due to systemic conditions. This paper reviews the current literature concerning the effect on periodontal health of genetic disorders such as connective tissue metabolism disorders, metabolic disorders, skin disorders, leukocyte defects, and chromosome abnormalities. Treatment strategies of patients with genetic disorders affected by periodontal diseases are also suggested according to the evidence available. In patients affected by genetic disorders, the response to treatment is not always as expected, and sometimes the progression of periodontal disease is inevitable despite adequate maintenance treatment.

Keywords: Periodontal Diseases - complications, Skin Diseases - complications, Metabolic Diseases - complications, Humans, Health, Genetic Diseases, Inborn - genetics, Chromosome Aberrations